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Necropsy is to animals and other creatures that autopsy is to people. That is, an investigation into the details of death.
When we are asked to inspect the cause of a hive die-out by a client or on one of our own, that is doing a necropsy.
There are a vast number of ways bees can die, individually and as a colony. My approach to necropsy is similar to how I go about analyzing a computer/networking problem. I start by observation and with the most basic and common problems first.
Any investigation has to begin with observation and evidence. If you're unsure of what exactly those might be in regards to this task, I am affixing a flowchart here to have something to start with. It is NOT complete not is it entirely specific. The purpose is to get an investigation started and moving in the most likely accurate direction.